Photovoltaic systems work on the principle of photovoltaic conversion of solar radiation, which is performed on solar cells made of semiconductor materials. Photovoltaic system means a system by means of which the supply of direct, alternating, or / and direct and alternating current is performed. Systems that convert solar radiation into both electrical and thermal energy are called multifunctional or hybrid systems. A photovoltaic cell is a device that converts solar radiation into direct current.

Photovoltaic systems can be divided into:

  • Independent solar systems – used where there is no possibility of supply from the network
  • Grid-connected solar electrical systems
  • Auxiliary systems
Basic elements of the system:

 Solar panel

Solar panels are a set of solar cells, which when exposed to light, give a certain voltage at their ends, usually 12V, 24V, 48V, which can be used to charge batteries and later for dedicated use. Solar panels consist of solar cells. As one solar cell cannot produce enough electricity so they are interconnected in a solar panel.

Charging controller

The charge controller is an electronic device that regulates the battery charging voltage. When the voltage reaches 14.4V, charging is switched off, and when it drops to 13.4V due to consumption, it switches on charging again. In the case of high consumption when the battery voltage reaches a critical point of 10.5 V, the role of the controller is to turn off the consumers.

Solar batteries

Solar batteries give the system a long service life and are adapted to constant charging and discharging. Solar electrical systems used to provide electricity when there is currently no electricity grid contain batteries.


Inverters are used to change the direct current (DC) current from the battery to the alternating current (AC) from the mains. Most solar systems produce direct current, some solar panels have an integrated inverter on the back of the board, the so-called AS module. If we plan to keep inverters on standby, we would use those that have low consumption in that state, and if we plan to use inverters we often choose those with high efficiency.